As a town of science, Dubna dates
from the time immediately after the end of World War II. In 1947 a group
of scientists led by Academician I. V. Kurchatov initiated construction
of the then largest accelerator of charged particles - synchrocyclotron
- on the bank of the Volga river, 120 km from Moscow.
The accelerator was commissioned already in 1949.
Extensive fundamental and applied
investigations into the properties of nuclear matter immediately started
at the newly-established Institute for Nuclear Problems (INP) with its
operating 680 MeV synchrocyclotron, headed by young physicists
M. G. Meshcheryakov and V. P. Dzhelepov,
later world-known scientists and Corresponding Members of the USSR Academy
After the INP, the Electrophysical
Laboratory of the USSR Academy of Sciences (EFLAN) was set up in Dubna.
It was headed by Academician V. I. Veksler and its work was concentrated
on construction of a new accelerator, namely a synchrophasotron with the
record parameters for that time.
By the mid-1950s the world had
come to realize that nuclear science could not be locked in secret laboratories
and that only wide international co-operation could ensure progress in
this fundamental realm of human knowledge and peaceful utilization of
atomic energy. In 1954 the European Organization for Nuclear Research
(CERN) was established near Geneva to
unite the efforts of West European countries in studying the fundamental
properties of the microcosm.
About the same time, under the
stimulus of the USSR Government, the countries then belonging to the socialist
world took a decision to establish the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research
on the basis of the INP and EFLAN. The agreement on the establishment
of the Institute was signed on 26 March 1956 in Moscow. The same
year specialists from 12 countries came to Dubna. The town became international.
Investigations in many fields of nuclear physics of interest for research
centres of the JINR Member States were launched here.
The history of JINR is associated
with such outstanding scientists as D.I. Blokhintsev, N.N. Bogoliubov,
H. Hulubei (Romania), L. Infeld (Poland), L. Janossy
(Hungary), I.V. Kurchatov, H. Niewodniczanski (Poland),
A.M. Petrosiants, E.P. Slavsky, I.E. Tamm, A.V.
Topchiev, and many others.
What is JINR today? It is a world-known
centre for fundamental nuclear research where scientists unite their efforts
to gain better insight into the surrounding world. Besides, here the fundamental
research is combined with applied investigations and university education.
JINR has at present 18
Member States: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czech
Republic, Georgia, Kazakhstan, D. P. Republic of Korea, Moldova, Mongolia,
Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam. Participation
of Germany and Hungary in JINR activities is based on bilateral agreements
signed at the governments' level.
In the past four decades JINR
has grown into a large many-branch physics centre. It employs over 6000
people, including 1000 scientists, about 2000 engineers and technicians.
Among the scientists there are 10 full members (academicians) and 8 corresponding
members of Academies of Sciences, over 230 Doctors of Sciences and 680
Candidates of Sciences. Director of JINR is the Academician of the Russian
Academy of Natural Sciences and the Russian Academy of Engineering Sciences Professor A.N. Sissakian,
Vice-Directors are Professors M.G. Itkis
and R. Lednicky. JINR comprises
eight Laboratories, each being comparable with a large institute in the
scale and scope of investigations performed. The Laboratories are headed
by Professors A.V. Belushkin, S.N. Dmitriev, V.V. Ivanov,
V.D. Kekelidze, E.A. Krasavin, R. Lednicky, A.G. Olshevsky, V.V. Voronov.
In Dubna there are sources of
charged particles and nuclei of widely varying energies. They are unique
in their class. Apart from the phasotron
(before 1984 - synchrocyclotron)
and the synchrophasotron,
there are accelerators of heavy ions U-200
In 1993 a beam of ions was extracted from a new accelerator U-400M.
In 1993-1994 a superconducting accelerator of relativistic nuclei, nuclotron,
was put into operation. Research is also carried out with a pulsed fast-neutron
and a neutron booster IBR-30
In 1994 the project IREN
entered the implementation stage, which means construction of a high-current
pulsed source of resonance neutrons.
JINR is a scientific centre equipped
with powerful and fast computation means integrated into the world computer
Three main avenues can be singled
out from JINR's wide range of investigations. Elementary particle physics:
investigation into production and interaction of particles is the most
direct way of comprehending the structure of matter. JINR scientists carry
out research in this field not only at the accelerators in Dubna, but
also in other scientific centres: CERN,
IHEP (Protvino, Russia), FNAL
(Batavia, USA), DESY (Hamburg,
Another avenue of investigation
is nuclear physics. Here one studies nuclear properties, nuclear
reactions, new elements, including transuranic and superheavy ones. Our
Institute is one of the world leaders in this field.
The third avenue is condensed
matter physics. This field of fundamental science has shown rapid
progress, particularly in the recent years. Experimental methods of nuclear
physics are applied to study physical phenomena in solids and liquids,
new properties of materials.
Many first-class achievements
belong to Dubna physicists. JINR accounts for a half of the discoveries
(about 40) in nuclear physics, registered in the USSR. The proposal of
the world scientific community to name element 105 "Dubnium" can
be regarded as recognition of the outstanding contribution made by our
scientists to modern science. Many of them have been awarded different
international and national prizes and state decorations for investigations
carried out at JINR.
About 500 papers and reports
representing about 3000 authors are submitted by JINR to editorial boards
of journals in many countries and to organizing committees of conferences
every year. JINR publications are sent to over 50 countries.
JINR is a truly international
institution. Its supreme governing body is the Committee
of Plenipotentiaries of all 18 Member States.
The scientific policy of JINR
is established by the Scientific Council,
whose members are prominent scientists from the Member States and well-known
physicists from CERN, France, Germany, Italy, and the USA.
Scientists from physics centres
of JINR Member States are involved in virtually all topics of the JINR
Topical Plan for Research. Important scientific results were obtained
in joint investigations with the Institute for High Energy Physics
(Protvino), Russian Scientific Centre "Kurchatov Institute" (Moscow),
Institute of Nuclear Physics (Gatchina), Institute of Theoretical
and Experimental Physics (Moscow), Institute for Nuclear Research
(Troitsk), Institute of Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences
(Moscow), Budker Institute for Nuclear Physics (Novosibirsk), etc.
For many years JINR has been
fruitfully collaborating with CERN, which allows speeding up solution
of many theoretical and experimental problems in high energy physics.
Scientific collaboration with many centres of physics in the Germany,
the USA, France, Italy, Switzerland, China, and other countries has been
successfully developing, especially in the recent years. JINR maintains
mutually beneficial relations with the IAEA, European Physical Society,
and International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste. Every year
about a thousand scientists from institutions collaborating with JINR
come to Dubna. JINR grants fellowships to physicists from developing countries.
Scientists of the Joint Institute
take part in many international and national scientific conferences. In
its turn, JINR holds up to 10 large conferences and over 30 international
workshops a year. Schools for young scientists have become a tradition
The Joint Institute has long
been called a scientific school of high quality. Many scientists and engineers
from the Member States were trained in this school. The careers of many
outstanding scientists are associated with it. This role of JINR is predetermined
by its establishment principles and by scientific schools of D.I. Blokhintsev,
N.N. Bogolubov, G.N. Flerov, I.M. Frank, B.M. Pontecorvo,
V.I. Veksler, and other outstanding physicists.
JINR means high skill of specialists
and good conditions for training and education of talented young people.
Over 30 years a branch of Moscow State University has been working in
Dubna. In 1991 a JINR
University Centre was set up. Here senior students of Moscow University,
Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow Institute of Physics and
Technology, and from other Russian institutes finish their training under
supervision of leading scientists of JINR, taking a practical course in
the JINR Laboratories as well. In 1995 postgraduate studies were organized
at the Institute.
A few years ago a new development
concept was launched at JINR with a goal to turn it into an international
centre combining fundamental research, engineering development, and education.
On the initiative of the JINR Directorate and with active support of the
Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Moscow Region and Dubna administrations,
an international university "Nature, Society,
Man" was established in Dubna, the first students entering it in 1994.
On the eve of 1999, scientists
of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in collaboration with colleagues
from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA) synthesized a new
long-lived superheavy element with atomic number 114. This discovery is
the result of many years of effort by experimental physicists who have
been searching for the 'stability island' predicted by theorists in many
countries for the past 35 years.
JINR today is an internationally
recognized centre for fundamental nuclear studies where scientists unite their efforts to gain
better insight into the surrounding world. The fundamental studies under
way here are combined with applied research and university education in
the relevant fields of knowledge.
Responsible for the text - B.Starchenko